Validation and Development of Instructional Methods for Islamic Studies and its impact on Students’ Academic Achievement in Lagos State
1.1 Background to the Study
Islam as a universal religion appreciates and recommends knowledge acquisition for human development and recognition of Almighty Allah as the creator of the cosmos. This is why the very first revelation to prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) was specifically on seeking for knowledge thus (Azeez and Adeshina, 2013):
“Read in the name of your Lord Who creates. He creates man out of a (mere) clot of congealed blood. Read! Your Lord is most bountiful. He who teaches (the use of pen) He teaches man that which he knows not” (Qur’an 96:1-5).
Teaching or instruction is an interactive process through which knowledge and skills are shared with students, with a view to improving students’ understanding and ability to manipulate the social, economic, political and physical environment to enhance their survival (Adeyemi, 2008). As asserted by Dufresne, Gerace, Leonard, Mestre, and Wenk (2010) the main objective of classroom instruction is to bring about desirable learning in students. In this regard, students are expected to develop appropriate knowledge and skills, which are necessary for solving problems and improving human life.
In most cases, the teacher initiates communication and influences students to think in a particular ways as guided by the instructional methods. However, whether the teacher authoritatively leads communication throughout the instructional process or whether the teacher takes up facilitation role is a matter of choice. The instructional methods used by teachers in sharing knowledge with students is considered as a factor capable of influencing learning achievement of students at all tiers of the education system (Tella, Indoshi, and Othuon, 2010). While appropriate instructional methods are likely to enhance learning achievement, inappropriate approaches are known to stifle knowledge retention and realization of learning objectives (Henson, 2004; Chang, 2010). Consequently, aligning instructional methods with the needs and preferences of students is considered important for higher learning achievement (Zeeb, 2004).
Instructional methods can be teacher-centered, learner-centered or mixed approach. Quite often, teachers prefer aids that make their work easier based on their beliefs, personal preferences and norms of their disciplines (Watson, 2003). In this regard, some teachers believe that lessons should be teacher-centered, where the teacher is the expert and the authority in presenting information (Ahmad and Aziz, 2009). Nevertheless, teacher-centered instructional methods are associated with inadequate stimulation of students’ innovative capacities, intellectual thinking, memorization, cramming of facts, poor knowledge retention and high dependency among students of Islamic Studies (McDowell, 2001; Tanner, 2009).
Although teachers have the discretion to choose methods for delivering lessons to their students, Chika (2012) observes that learner-centered pedagogy is a powerful strategy for improving students’ learning achievement in Islamic Studies’ examinations and application of knowledge and skills acquired.
Education in Islam is the basis of life as well as development for both individual and the society (Maigari, 2010). This is why seeking for knowledge is made obligatory on every Muslim to cater for both spiritual and material life of the individual. Thus, Islam through its education, which is embedded in Islamic Studies, prepares men of faith and knowledge, bring and guide them to a happy, prosperous, useful and productive life in both worlds (Liman, 2012). By this, Islamic Studies is very fundamental as it deals with the overall development of an individual who is to be submissive to the wills and orders of Allah. Islamic Studies is an encouragement of the pursuit of useful knowledge in accordance with the saying of the prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) “the search for knowledge is a duty for every Muslim, male or female”.
Therefore, this study seeks to assess the validation and development of instructional methods for Islamic Studies and its impact on students’ academic achievement in Lagos State.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Islamic Studies is an important subject through which everything about the religion of Islam can be learnt and taught. In spite of the importance of Islamic Studies as a requirement for appreciating and promoting Islam among Muslims, it is sad to note that students’ academic achievement in Islamic Studies is not encouraging (Adesina, 2011; Gambari, 2010) The West African Examinations Council (WAEC) and National Examinations Council (NECO) have repeatedly reported poor performance in of students in Islamic Studies (NECO, 2017; WAEC, 2018). This problem has a major implication on Islam as a religion.
The modernization of Islamic schools under the so-called “Western Education” has really affected the planning of its curriculum to the extent that it is regarded as ‘very low’ compare to the standard of Islamic studies being taught in the Arabic schools (Abdullahi, 2014). In this educational dualism of the modern secular system and the traditional Islamic religious system, the contemporary Islamic schools are falling short of the Islamic modus-operandi in educating individual to become an ideal personality in both Islamic and western world.
One of the major problems faced by students of Islamic Studies is inability to remember what has been learnt. This problem is often caused by too much theoretical expression by the teachers while learners are passive listeners. Students memorize and regurgitate facts and concepts. These problems confronting the teaching and learning of Islamic Studies is not unconnected to the validation and development of instructional methods being used to instruct students, as observation has shown that modern instructional packages such as slide presentations, video presentation process and other interactive ICT software facilities in which a student interacts with and is guided by visual equipment to support students academic achievement in Islamic Studies are largely unavailable to many schools in Lagos State (Onasanya, 2002).
Consequently, this study seeks to assess the validation and development of instructional methods for Islamic Studies and its impact on students’ academic achievement in Lagos State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The primary purpose of this study is to explore the validation and development of instructional methods for Islamic Studies and its impact on students’ academic achievement in Lagos State. Other specific objectives are:
i. To examine the effect of lecture method on students’ academic achievement in Islamic Studies.
ii. To examine the effect of demonstration method on students’ academic achievement in Islamic Studies.
iii. To investigate the effect of audio-visual on students’ academic achievement in Islamic Studies.
1.4 Research Questions
This study will be guided by the following research questions:
i. What is the effect of lecture method on students’ academic achievement in Islamic Studies?
ii. What is the effect of demonstration method on students’ academic achievement in Islamic Studies?
iii. Does audio-visual have any effect on students’ academic achievement in Islamic Studies?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The researcher intends to test the following hypotheses:
H01: There is no significant effect of lecture method on students’ academic achievement in Islamic Studies.
H02: There is no significant effect of demonstration method on students’ academic achievement in Islamic Studies.
H03: There is no
significant effect of audio-visual
on students’ students’ academic
achievement in Islamic Studies.