PERCEPTION OF EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING AMONG WOMEN AT THE NIGERIAN NAVY BARRACKS OJO [NUR002]
L’étude a examiné la perception d'allaitement exclusif (EBF) parmi des femmes dans la Baraque navale nigériane Ojo. Le style d’enquête descriptif a été adopté dans l’étude. Le questionnaire était l’outil principal pour la collecte de données. Un nombre total de cent (100) copies de questionnaire ont été administrés aux personnes interrogées pendant l’étude tandis qu’un nombre total de quatre-vingt-dix-sept (97) copies ont été correctement remplis et rendus au chercheur. Les données rassemblées ont été analysées utilisant les outils statistiques descriptifs de comptes de fréquence et de pourcentage simple, lastatistique déductive de chi-carré (X2) a été employée pour tester toutes les hypothèses exposées au niveau de 5 % de signification à l’aide du Paquet statistique pour des Sciences sociales (SPSS 20.0) afin d’examiner la relation entre les personnes à charge et les variables indépendantes dans chaque hypothèse. Trois (3) hypothèses ont été testées et l’entièredes hypothèses alternatives ont été acceptées. Entre autres, le résultat empirique de l’étude a produit les découvertes suivantes : la perception parmi des femmes détermine leur volonté de pratiquer l’allaitement exclusif dans la Baraque navale nigériane Ojo; l'attitude parmi des mères a l’effet sur l’allaitement exclusif dans la Baraque navale nigériane Ojo; et que l’allaitement exclusif (EBF) est avantageux pour la mère et les nourrissons. À cette fin, l’étude a recommandé que les mères allaitantes dans la Baraque navale nigériane Ojo doivent être encouragées d’aller à la clinique prénatale pour avoir accès aux informations adéquates sur l’allaitement exclusif (EBF).
The study examined the perception of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) among women at the Nigerian Navy Barracks Ojo. Descriptive Survey Design was adopted in the study. Questionnaire was the major tool for data collection. A total number of one hundred (100) copies of questionnaire were administered to the respondents during the study while a total number of ninety seven (97) copies were properly filled and returned to the researcher. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools of frequency counts and simple percentage, inferential statistics of Chi-square (X2) was employed to test all the stated hypotheses at 5% level of significance with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0) in order to examine the relationship between the dependents and independents variables in each hypothesis. Three (3) hypotheses were tested and the entire alternative hypotheses were accepted. Among other things the empirical result of the study produced the following key findings: perception among women determines their readiness to practice exclusive breastfeeding in Nigerian Navy Barracks Ojo; attitude among mothers has effect on exclusive breastfeeding in Nigerian Navy Barracks Ojo; and that exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is beneficial to both mother and infants. To this end, the study recommended that breastfeeding mothers in the Nigerian Navy Barracks Ojo should be encouraged to attend antenatal clinic in order to have access to adequate information on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF).
Breastfeeding (EBF), Women, Mortality
1.1 Background to the Study
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) means that an infant receives only breast milk no other liquids or solids are given – not even water – with the exception of oral rehydration solution or drops/syrups of medicines (WHO, 2014).
Moreover, the current World Health Organization [WHO] recommendations on breastfeeding stipulate that breastfeeding should start immediately following delivery for the baby to get colostrum. The infant should thereafter be exclusively breastfed for up to six months of life, day and night on child’s demand. During this period, no fluids including water should be given to the baby. However, there is a room for giving oral medication to the infant should he/she falls sick. Breastfeeding should still continue until the child is two years of age. The use of bottle-feeding, teats and pacifiers are discouraged as they are associated with poor hygiene and the risk of gastrointestinal infection to the infant.
Over the last decade, overwhelming scientific evidence supporting the integral role of breastfeeding in the survival, growth and development of a child, as well as in the health and well-being of the mother, has come to light. Breast milk has the complete nutritional requirements that a baby needs for healthy development. Moreover, it is safe and contains antibodies that help protect infants and boost immunity. Consequently, breastfeeding contributes to reduced infant morbidity and mortality due to diarrhoea, respiratory infections, ear infections and other infectious diseases. For the mother, breastfeeding is economical; breast milk is always available, clean and at the right temperature. Breastfeeding also delays the return of fertility and reduces the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers (Nancy et al., 2012).
Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is associated with multiple advantages to both the baby and the mother. On the baby’s side, there is acquisition of passive immunity against infection, nutrients for physical and mental development, emotional security and closeness to the mother. Being a dynamic and physiologically sensitive process, breast milk production is adjusted to suit the infant’s requirement according to environmental changes. For example, breast milk will contain more fat during cold seasons (Dickin et al., 2007).
The mother will also benefit from exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) by experiencing lactational amenorrhea, fast return of the uterus to its normal size, prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, reduced risk of getting cancer of the breast and ovary, low risk of osteoporosis and emotional satisfaction. Also breast milk is cheap compared to other artificial feeding.
Globally, there are new initiatives to encourage exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). These include the International Code of Marketing Breast milk Substitutes and Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative [BFHI]. Mothers can obtain information about exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) when they are attending antenatal clinic and following hospital delivery. Mass media like radio and television are also helpful in disseminating public education on breastfeeding (Amin et al., 2014). Hence, this study seeks to examine the perception of exclusive breastfeeding among women at the Nigerian Navy Barracks Ojo.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In Nigeria there is a declining trend of breastfeeding. Reasons for declining breastfeeding include erroneous perceptions among women that the child is not getting enough, increased urban women work load demand that makes them to be separated from their babies for longer hours, decline in social support, discomfort on breastfeeding in public, and intense promotion of commercial milk formulae. Ogbonna et al (2011); Forbes et al (2013) have proposed that lack of suitable facilities outside of the home, inconvenience, conflicts at work, family pressure and ignorance all adversely affect the willingness of women to practice exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). The need to return to work has also been implicated as a factor interfering with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF).
In acknowledgement of the importance of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) to both infants and mothers, the Nigerian government established the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) in Benin, Enugu, Maiduguri, Lagos, Jos and Port Harcourt with the aim of providing mothers and their infants a supportive environment for breastfeeding and to promote appropriate breastfeeding practices, thus helping to reduce infant morbidity and mortality rates. Despite these efforts, the perception of women towards exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains poor as child and infant mortality continue to be major health issues affecting Nigeria. The infant mortality rate for the most recent five-year period (2009-2013) is about 100 deaths per 1,000 live births. EBF rates in Nigeria continue to fall well below the WHO/UNICEF recommendation of 90% EBF in children less than 6 months (WHO, 2009). A more detailed understanding of the perception and attitude of mothers to exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Nigeria is needed to develop effective interventions to improve the rates of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and thus reduce infant mortality.
Hence, the problem of this study is to examine the perception of exclusive breastfeeding among women at the Nigerian Navy Barracks Ojo.
1.3 Aim of the Study
The fundamental aim of the study is to examine the perception of exclusive breastfeeding among women at the Nigerian Navy Barracks Ojo.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The research study was conducted with the following specific objectives:
a) To examine the perception of exclusive breastfeeding among women in Nigerian Navy Barracks Ojo.
b) To find out the attitude of mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding in Nigerian Navy Barracks Ojo.
c) To investigate the health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF).
1.5 Research Questions
The study was guided by the following research questions;
i. What is the perception of exclusive breastfeeding among women in Nigerian Navy Barracks Ojo?
ii. What is the attitude of mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding in Nigerian Navy Barracks Ojo?
iii. How is exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) beneficial to both mother and infants?
4.6 Research Hypotheses
The researcher intends to test the following hypotheses;
Ho: Perception among women is not significantly related to exclusive breastfeeding in Nigerian Navy Barracks Ojo.
Hi: Perception among women is significantly related to exclusive breastfeeding in Nigerian Navy Barracks Ojo.
Ho: Attitude of mothers has no significant effect on exclusive breastfeeding in Nigerian Navy Barracks Ojo.
Hi: Attitude of mothers has a significant effect on exclusive breastfeeding in Nigerian Navy Barracks Ojo.
Ho: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is not beneficial to both mother and infants.
Hi: Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is beneficial to both mother and infants.
of the Study